|Air quality||The cleanliness of the air that we breathe|
|Smog||a form of air pollution that is or looks like a mixture of smoke and fog, especially in cities|
|Exhaust fumes||smoke, gas, or something similar that smells strongly or is dangerous to breathe in|
|Emit Carbon dioxide||Release CO2|
|Greenhouse gases||any of the gases that are thought to cause the greenhouse effect, especially carbon dioxide|
|Burning Fossil Fuels||fuel such as coal or oil, that was formed over millions of years from the remains of animals or plants|
|Earth’s ozone layer||a layer of ozone high above the earth’s surface that helps to protect the earth from harmful radiation from the sun|
|Sulphur dioxide||a poisonous gas with a strong smell, that is used in industry and causes air pollution|
|Environmentally friendly methods of transportation||Modes of transport which emit less greenhouse gases|
|Global warming||the increase in temperature of the earth’s atmosphere, that is caused by the increase of particular gases, especially carbon dioxide|
|Carbon footprint||a measure of the amount of carbon dioxide that is produced by the daily activities of a person or company|
|Combat climate change||Fight against global warming|
|Curb global warming||Reduce global warming|
|Higher taxes on gasoline||Increase the price of petrol|
|Global health emergency||A worldwide health problem|
|Breached the legal limit for air pollution||Exceeded the agreed level of pollution in the air|
|Ticking time bomb of public |
|A health issue that will explode in the future.|
|Die prematurely||Die earlier than you should|
|Acid Rain||rain that contains harmful chemicals from factory gases and that damages trees, crops and buildings|
Why is Air Pollution so Serious?
- Long term exposure to air pollution can increase the risk of asthma, heart disease and potentially even dementia.
- According to the UN, 3.3 million people die prematurely due to the effects of air pollution every year
- According to King’s College, almost 9,500 people die annually as a result of poor air quality. Over 3,500 as a result of nitrogen dioxide and almost 6,000 because of PM2.5 which is the name given to the smallest particles of pollution. These particles can penetrate deep into the lungs and cause respiratory problems
- According to the WHO, 91% of the world’s population lives in places where air quality exceeds World Health Organization limits.
- Around 3 billion people cook using polluting open fires or simple stoves fuelled by kerosene, biomass (wood, animal dung and crop waste) and coal.
- Each year, close to 4 million people die prematurely from illness attributable to household air pollution from inefficient cooking practices using polluting stoves paired with solid fuels and kerosene.
Solutions to Air Pollution
- Travel by foot, bicycle or train which are more environmentally friendly.
- Reduce your carbon footprint by considering the amount of carbon dioxide you put into the atmosphere.
- Only use a car when there are at least 2 passengers.
- The Paris Agreement was ratified on November 4, 2016, among 118 nations as a larger effort to limit the emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. Each country agreed to take measures to combat climate change, with the final objective of keeping the post-industrial global temperature rise below two degrees celsius.
- Governments should create higher taxes on petrol, so that individuals and companies will have greater incentives to conserve energy and pollute less.
- Governments should create a congestion charge which charges a fixed fee for everyone who drives in the city centre. This will encourage people to take public transport especially if the charge is used to subsidize subways, buses or trams.
Consider another environmental problem which is prevalent in your country. For this environmental issue produce a high level vocabulary list (use phrases or collocations)
Read English articles related to the topic and find natural phrases or collocations.
Find statistics or research which outlines how this environmental issue affects people or the Earth.
Write 3 potential solutions to this problem (at least one governmental, one personal solution)
Post your answers to the exercises in the comments section.